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What are the factors that affect the transmission distance of optical modules
Knowledge Base + 2023.12.12

1, light source

The quality of the optical module's conversion of optical and electrical signals depends greatly on its internal light source. Typically, a higher light source can provide a greater transmission distance, because the optical signal can reduce attenuation in the transmission process. The light source in an optical module will typically be an LED (light emitting diode) or a laser diode. It should be noted that their quality will directly affect the transmission distance of the optical signal.

2, color dispersion

Fiber dispersion refers to the frequency distortion that occurs when optical signals are transmitted in optical fibers. The main reason for dispersion is that different frequencies of optical signals in the propagation process of different propagation speeds, thus reaching the receiving end of the time is also different, resulting in pulse broadening, and ultimately unable to distinguish the signal value. The use of dispersion suppression techniques, such as fiber optic dispersion compensation module, can increase the transmission distance.


Fiber optic loss is the attenuation of optical signals occurring during transmission in optical fibers. Loss is the transmission of light in the fiber, due to media absorption and scattering and leakage of light energy loss, this part of the energy with the increase in transmission distance to a certain rate of dissipation. Optical fiber loss includes various forms of loss, such as absorption loss, scattering loss and bending loss. Lower fiber loss can support a longer transmission distance.

4、Transmission rate

Transmission rate refers to the speed at which the optical module transmits data. Higher transmission rates require higher light source power and lower loss to support longer transmission distances.

5、Attenuation compensation

As the transmission distance increases, the intensity of the optical signal will gradually weaken. To compensate for the attenuation during transmission, devices such as optical amplifiers or repeaters can be used to enhance the strength of the signal to support longer transmission distances.

6、Environmental factors

Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and air pressure will also have an impact on the transmission distance. High temperatures, high humidity and high air pressure may exacerbate fiber attenuation and dispersion, thus limiting the transmission distance.